Category Archives: Fermentation

The latest from Lallemand!

Can I purchase LalBrew New England East Coast Ale Yeast or WildBrew Sour Pitch from Murphy & Son? The answer is yes! Interested? Please email or call 0115 978 5494 for prices, advice and availability.

So, what can you expect from these two Lallemand latest? The newest kid on the block is LalBrew New England, officially unveiled yesterday (Nov 13th ’17) and it’s an innovation that’s already causing a stir!

The LalBrew New England is a ready-to-use dried strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which has been selected for its specific ability to allow hop flavours to remain prominent while also providing the fruity notes championed by the ‘East Coast’ style. The ‘East Coast’ style is a sister style to its West Coast counterpart, but with yeast that naturally produces fruity aromas. An ale with a mixed bouquet of fruit and hops on the nose and when tasted, which is sometimes brewed cloudy and sometimes not.

As we’ve already said, Lalbrew New England is causing quite a stir, the Murphy sales team have already received enquiries and that’s before its official release! In fact, this new yeast has been produced in reaction to a number of customer requests, hence our confidence in its relevance and popularity. It’s also been seen very favourably in the trials executed by several breweries. Like to trial this yourself? Please don’t hesitate to get in touch.

Want the specifics?
Click here for the Lalbrew New England Technical Data Sheet

LalBrew New England isn’t the only innovation we’ve seen from Lallemand recently. The first product in the new WildBrew line, Sour Pitch, has also been making heads turn. A zesty addition to your brew style.

WildBrew Sour Pitch, is a ready-to-use dried bacteria. A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum specifically selected for its ability to produce a wide range of sour beer styles. Some of the styles you can brew with Sour Pitch include, Berliner Weisse, Gose, Lambic, American Wild and Sour IPA. In addition to which, if you choose Sour Pitch when brewing your sour beer style of choice, you can ensure unmatched consistency, effortless application, fully assured performance and unparalleled purity!

What’s the brewing industry reaction? Several breweries around the world have executed highly successful pilot brewing trials with Sour Pitch, the results of which have been overwhelming positive. Pair this with the huge buzz we’ve seen in the industry around Sour Pitch since its release at Drinktec 2017 and it’s undeniable that everyone is looking to try it, or rather “unlock their sour potential”.

Finally, WildBrew Sour Pitch has been designed to assist creativity in brewing, but here are a few tips for its application. The ideal temperature for inoculation of WildBrew Sour Pitch is: 35-38C (95-100.5F) optimal but 30-40C (86-104F) will result in effective souring and the recommended inoculation rate is 10g/hL.

Want the specifics?
Click here for the WildBrew Sour Pitch Technical Data Sheet

Water, Water Everywhere. Murphy and Son Ltd

Water, Water Everywhere

We take treating your liquor very seriously at Murphy’s. If you purchase any of our liquor treatments please remember you are entitled to a free liquor analysis and our technical support. We will recommend the most suitable treatment for your brewery.
Send in 50ml of your water to our Laboratory

Send in 50ml of your water to our Laboratory


Beer contains approximately 90% water, and the importance of the liquor to final beer quality cannot be over-estimated. Historically a correlation was observed between the liquor composition of an area and the type of beer that the region could best brew. The Pale Ales of Burton-on-Trent and Edinburgh, Porters of London, Stouts of Dublin and Lagers of Pilsen are classic examples. Water falling as rain, hail, sleet or snow is pure, but dissolves gasses such as oxygen and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. On reaching the ground the water runs off into rivers, streams and lakes and on in some cases to reservoirs. The composition of the water in the reservoirs is dependent upon the nature of the catchment area. In areas where the rocks are hard, the water will not penetrate deeply, and will be ‘soft’ – that is low in dissolved salts. In areas where the rocks are more permeable – gypsum obrewing liquorr limestone for example – water will penetrate readily and dissolve many minerals on its way to the reservoirs to become ‘hard’.

The water supplied by local Water Authorities is required to be potable – that is fit to drink and free from pathogenic organisms. In order to reduce microbiological counts chlorine will usually be added, but the water is not sterile. Fortunately however the micro organisms found in water are not beer spoilage organisms, being unable to survive the conditions of high ethanol and hop resin levels and low pH found in beers. So the objective of liquor treatment is to convert the water sent to us by the Water Authorities into acceptable brewing liquor. This we achieve by the removal of unwanted ions and addition of required levels of desirable ions

DWB Liquor Treatment from Murphy's

DWB Liquor Treatment from Murphy’s


Of the ions required for brewing, calcium is by far the most important. This is because of the acidifying effect that calcium has on the wort.

Wort contains large amounts of phosphates derived from the malt, and these have a buffering effect – that is they tend to mop up hydrogen ions and keep the pH higher than desired. Calcium ions precipitate phosphates as insoluble calcium phosphate and release hydrogen ions into the wort. It is worth mentioning at this point that whilst the pH of the wort is critical, that of the water in the HLT is not. The pH of water may vary from about pH 5 to pH 8 dependent upon the levels of dissolved carbon dioxide – even de-ionised water can have pH levels as low as 5 after exposure to the air. However the carbon dioxide is driven off by heat in the HLT and the pH of the water will rise.

A combination of the presence of calcium ions and the decrease in pH has a number of effects on the brewing process:

The lower pH improves enzyme activity and thus wort fermentability and extract.

The optimum pH for ß-amylase activity is about 4·7. Wort produced from liquor containing no calcium has a pH in the order of 5·8 – 6·0, compared to values in the range of 5·3 – 5·5 for worts produced from treated brewing liquor. The activity of the ß-amylase then is greatly enhanced by the addition of calcium, this exo enzyme increasing the production of maltose from Amylose, and thus making worts more fermentable.

Calcium has an almost ‘chicken and egg’ effect in the precipitation of wort proteins, both during mashing and during the boil.

Protein-H + Ca2+ Protein-Ca + 2H+

The hydrogen ions released further reduce the pH which encourages further precipitation of proteins. Proteins are also degraded, that is converted to simpler substances by proteolytic enzymes called proteases. These are found in the malt, and have optimum activity at pH values of about 4·5 – 5·0. The reduction in pH then caused by the presence of calcium encourages proteolysis, further reducing protein levels and increasing wort Free Amino Nitrogen levels (FAN). FAN compounds are utilised by the yeast during fermentation for the manufacture of Amino acids, and an increase in FAN levels in the wort improves the health and vigour of the yeast. High protein levels in beers also have negative effects, making beer more difficult to fine and encouraging formation of hazes, in particular chill hazes. Product shelf life can also be adversely affected.

Calcium ions protect the enzyme a-amylase from inhibition by heat.

a-amylase is an endo enzyme, cleaving the internal 1,4 glucosidic links of amylopectin resulting in a rapid reduction in wort viscosity.

It can be seen then that the presence of calcium has positive effects on the activity of both a-amylase and ß-amylase, two of the most important enzymes in the brewing process.

The drop in pH encouraged by Calcium ions in the mash and copper helps afford the wort and subsequent beer produced a greater resistance to microbiological infection.

The reduced pH of the sparge liquor reduces extraction of undesirable silicates, tannins and polyphenols from the mash bed.

The extraction of such materials is encouraged by alkaline sparge liquor. These materials are very undesirable, contributing to harsh flavours, hazes in the finished beer and decreased beer stability.

Calcium precipitates oxalates as insoluble calcium oxalate.

This again occurs in both the mash tun and the copper. Oxalates cause hazes in finished beers and also contribute to the formation of beerstone in FV’s, CT’s and casks. Oxalates are also thought to promote gushing in certain beers, although this is not generally a problem to the micro brewer.

The presence of calcium reduces colour formation in the copper.

This is due to the reduction of extraction of colour forming compounds such as anthocyanogens and pro-anthocyanidins during the sparge. The reaction: Reducing Sugar + Heat Melanoidins is also inhibited.

Calcium ions improve beer fining performance.

Calcium ions encourage yeast flocculation – being a divalent Cation it has a natural affinity for negatively charged yeast cells.
With all the above advantages of the presence of calcium and reduction in pH there is one minor disadvantage.

The reduction in pH causes a decrease in hop utilisation, giving less bitter beers.

This increases hopping costs, since more hops will be required to achieve a desired level of bitterness. However the optimum pH for hop isomerisation as used in the commercial production of isomerised hop extracts is about pH 10, so a reduction from pH 5·8 in a mash with untreated liquor to pH 5·1 out of copper for a treated brew is not too critical.

You will see that much of the calcium added to the mash is lost – precipitated out as phosphate, proteinate or oxalate. Since calcium is specifically required in the copper for further precipitation of these materials it is common to add calcium to the grist or Hot Liquor Tank and to then make a second addition to the copper. Where this is not practical it is quite acceptable to make a larger addition to the grist or to the H.L.T.


This ion needs to be very closely controlled in order to achieve good beer. High levels of bicarbonate cause high pH values throughout the brewing process according to the equation:

It should be noted that bicarbonate ions are rather more effective at raising wort pH than calcium ions are at reducing it.
The conversion of bicarbonate to carbonic acid is reversible until heat is applied, which drives off the carbon dioxide. This effectively removes the acidic hydrogen ion from the system by using it to form a stable water molecule. The wort pH therefore remains high and all the advantages derived from the presence of adequate calcium levels and reduced pH are lost.

We therefore see the following:

  • Harsh after-tastes in the finished beer
  • Extract will be reduced due to lower ß-amylase activity
  • Reduced protein precipitation due to high pH
  • Worts and beer more prone to infection
  • Increased extract of undesirable materials in the sparge, notably silicates, polyphenols and tanning

The net result of this is then to decrease beer stability and shelf life and to increase the likelihood of troublesome hazes. Colour will be darker, and flavour will be detrimentally affected. Hop utilisation will be increased, giving more bitter beers. It is then essential to ensure removal of excess bicarbonate. You will recall from Figure 1 that a hard water may contain 250 mgs/l of bicarbonate. The maximum level that can be tolerated without adverse effect for the production of pale ales is 50 mgs/l, and the preferred level would be about 25 mgs/l. It should also be noted that whilst additions of calcium may be made to HLT, grist and copper, the removal of bicarbonate must be achieved in the Hot Liquor Tank.

This may be done in a number of ways:

Deionsiation: Very effective, but high capital and revenue costs.

Lime treatment: Addition of carefully controlled amounts of lime (calcium hydroxide) to the HLT will precipitate the bicarbonate as calcium carbonate.

There are 2 major drawbacks:

  1. The amount added needs to be exactly calculated and over addition may result in an overall increase in alkalinity.
  2. The precipitated calcium carbonate can form a sludge on the bottom of the HLT that will need periodic cleaning.

Boiling: This again is a traditional method of removal of bicarbonate (Temporary Hardness) but again has 2 drawbacks:

  1. Very expensive.
  2. Only effective where the alkalinity is present as bicarbonate. If the levels of sodium, potassium or magnesium carbonates or hydroxides present are significant boiling will not be effective.

Acid Treatment: Now the most widely used method, for a number of reasons:

  1. Relatively inexpensive.
  2. Easy to use and does not produce sludge in the HLT
  3. May add desirable anions – sulphate or chloride.
  4. Can use phosphoric or lactic acids if no anions are wanted – eg for lager beers.
AMS Murphy and Son Liquor Treatment

AMS Murphy and Son Liquor Treatment

It is essential to rouse the liquor when acid treating in order to encourage the removal of the carbon dioxide. This can have corrosive effects on the materials of construction of HLT’s if left in solution.


Is an essential element of brewing liquor because it is required by yeast as a co-factor for the production of certain enzymes required for the fermentation process. It is invariable formulated into liquor treatments at relatively low levels.

However caution must be exercised for 3 reasons:

  1. Excess magnesium can interfere with the reactions of calcium because its phosphates are more soluble
  2. Above about 20 mgs/l magnesium can give beer a sour and bitter taste
  3. In excess magnesium has a laxative effect


Is present in all beers. Excessive levels are undesirable as it imparts a sour and salty taste at high concentrations. The flavour is more acceptable when the sodium is present as chloride than as sulphate.


Is, like magnesium, a yeast co-factor and is required at trace levels for satisfactory fermentations. It is more acceptable than sodium from a flavour point of view, giving a salty taste without the sour notes. It is also gaining some favour as Doctors warn of the effects of high sodium intake on blood pressure. However potassium salts are very much more expensive than the sodium equivalents, and in excess potassium has laxative effects on the beer.

Sulphate and Chloride:

It is convenient to discuss the effect of these two ions together. Much is made in brewing literature of the impact of these ions on beer flavour characteristics – sulphate gives beer a drier, more bitter flavour, whilst chloride imparts palate fullness and to an extent sweetness. However what must be noted is that it is the ratio of the concentrations of these two ions that is significant, rather than simply the actual concentrations. A ratio of about 2:1 sulphate to chloride is about right for a bitter beer, and it makes little difference if the actual values are 500:250 or 350:175 mgs/l. As will be seen in Figure 3 ratios of 1:2 sulphate:chloride are recommended for mild ales, whilst a ratio of 1:3 may give best results for stouts or porters.

Sulphate and Chloride: It is convenient to discuss the effect of these two ions together. Much is made in brewing literature of the impact of these ions on beer flavour characteristics – sulphate gives beer a drier, more bitter flavour, whilst chloride imparts palate fullness and to an extent sweetness. However what must be noted is that it is the ratio of the concentrations of these two ions that is significant, rather than simply the actual concentrations. A ratio of about 2:1 sulphate to chloride is about right for a bitter beer, and it makes little difference if the actual values are 500:250 or 350:175 mgs/l. As will be seen in Figure 3 ratios of 1:2 sulphate:chloride are recommended for mild ales, whilst a ratio of 1:3 may give best results for stouts or porters.

Sulphur is essential for the fermentation process, since the yeast needs to manufacture the two sulphur containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Some yeast strains will use sulphur from sulphate ions for this purpose and will then excrete any excess as sulphite ions. These can then be reduced to form hydrogen sulphide or sulphur dioxide. Both of these materials have characteristic pungent odours and even at low levels can give unacceptable sulphury noses to the beer. Bacteria also have the ability to produce a wide variety of sulphury off flavours, including rubber, garlic and cooked vegetable.


Levels of Nitrate are beginning to drop generally due to greater control of the use of nitrogenous fertilisers. Nitrates themselves are not a problem at levels below 50 mgs/l, however they can be reduced by yeast or bacteria to form Nitrites. These ions can then react with wort amines to form Nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic.

Trace Ions:

Metals such as Iron, Manganese, Copper and Zinc may be found in small quantities in water and are all utilised by yeast at levels below 1 ppm. Higher levels can cause colloidal hazes and metallic off flavours, particularly with higher levels of Iron. Silica should also be at very low levels in brewing liquor because of the likelihood of colloidal hazes being formed. Ammonia should be absent in brewing liquors, being indicative of contamination by sewage. Fluorine, present in most waters at about 1 ppm for dental purposes, has no detectable effect on the brewing process. However Chlorine, used for sterilisation, may be at relatively high levels at certain times of the year. This can cause problems since chlorine is a very reactive chemical and will readily react with organics to form chlorophenols. These have a medicinal (T.C.P.) flavour which is in some cases detectable at levels below 1 ppb. Chlorine will be lost to some degree by the heat in the Hot Liquor Tank, but not all water used within the brewery is from that source. Some brewers may use untreated liquor to break down to gravity in fermenter, and rinsing following caustic or acid cleaning cycles will typically be with untreated mains liquor. One solution is to treat both Hot and Cold Liquor Tanks with 10 ppm of Salicon Liquid 169 (20 mls in 10 brls liquor) and rouse vigorously to remove the chlorine. The sulphur dioxide reacts with chlorine in the manner described below – reducing reactive, undesirable and potentially harmful chlorine ions to chlorides.

Typical Liquor Analyses for Beer Types:
Bitter Mild Porter Lager
Calcium 170 100 100 50
Magnesium 15 10 10 2
Bicarbonate 25 50 100 25
Chloride 200 200 300 10
Sulphate 400 150 100 10

Nitrate – As low as possible
Metals – Zn, Cu, Fe,Mn Less than 1 ppm All figures are in ppm (mgs/ltr)


AMS Liquor Treatment

Please take a look at Murphy’s Liquor treatment range.


Murphy and Son Ltd now supply Tate and Lyle products

We will now distribute Tate and Lyle products to the brewing industry.


Tate and Lyle products from Murphy and Son

We have recently reached an agreement with ASR, more commonly known as Tate and Lyle, to become their distributor to the brewing industry. This arrangement opens up their full portfolio of products to ourselves and gives significant benefits to ourselves as well as strengthening a product line in which we have historically been able to offer relatively few materials. We will look to hold limited quantities of golden caster sugar, replacing the material we use at present. All other lines will be bought to order as customers require them.

Tate & Lyle® is the largest cane sugar brand in the United Kingdom and has been produced at the same refinery on the banks of the River Thames in London since 1878. Tate & Lyle Sugars are part of ASR Group – the largest vertically integrated cane sugar producer in the world. They focus principally on bringing specialty sugars and functional ingredients made from sugar cane to the EU marketplace.

Sugars in Brewing


-High fermentability of sugars allows extended brew lengths for more efficient brewing

-Add colour and flavour

-Reduced Nitrogen content vs Malt or other adjuncts

-Add body to Low Alcohol Beers

Liquid Sugars

Comprising almost entirely of Sucrose and water our sugar syrups are an easy to use option for including sugar in your brews. From the pure sweetness of White Sugar Syrup to the darker more complex flavours of Amber and Black Sugar syrups.

Invert Syrups

LGS 454g-Pouring_CO

Invert sugars

‘Inverting’ the di-saccharide Sucrose into the mono-saccharides Fructose and Glucose creates ‘Invert Sugar.’ As well as being directly fermentable, Invert Sugar is sweeter than conventional Sugar (Sucrose) and allows for a higher solids level syrup with a longer stable life. Our extensive range of Invert Syrups including the world famous ‘Lyle’s Golden Syrup’ is a flavourful and efficient alternative to conventional sugar

Treacles/ Molasses

Black Treacle-Pouring_CO

Mollases from Murphy and Son

Treacles (also known as Molasses) have a long history of use in brewing. Milds, Porters and Stouts can all benefit from the colour and flavours of these dark cane syrups


Traditional Cane Sugars

As well as normal white granulated sugar we, as Sugarcane refiners, are able to offer the full range of brown sugars. Our range spans from the light, dry Golden Granulated sugar to the dark, sticky, liquorice tasting Muscovado, adding unique flavours to any beer.

Unrefined Demerara Sugar from our mill in Belize is particularly suited to giving caramel flavour notes to your product.

Brown sugar close-up on wooden spoon with Sugar cane

Can sugars from Murphy and Son

Qwik Flo Sugars

Our newest range of sugars. Using an innovative process we are able to make very dry, quick dissolving granules from almost any syrup. Ideal for processes where traditional sugars take too long to dissolve or syrups are difficult to handle. These products are a perfect way of adding Honey or Molasses to your brew in an easy to handle format.

Please take a look at the Tate and Lyle Range for 2016

Tate and Lyle Sugar Range 2016

Please contact  or the sales office if you are interested or would like more information about these products.

Chance to win a fully paid, professional level brewing course…

Lallemand/Danstar are once again running a contest to win fully-paid tuition for a professional-level web-based brewing course for breweries using Lallemand Brewing yeast.
Please print of the following application form and enclose your used sachets and send to Lallemand

Rules and form for the Beer School 2016 contest

Official Rules for the Lallemand/Danstar “Beer School 2016” Contest
You must be at least 21 years of age to enter
Contest is open to residents of all areas of the world except where prohibited by law
The grand prize is not transferable
Other courses may not be subsitituted nor will the World Brewing Academy provide an alternative prize.
You may enter as often as you want, but you must attach one empty Lallemand/Danstar brewing yeast package to a separate, fully-completed copy of this entry form. Packages can be either 11 gram or 500 gram sizes. You may put multiple entries into a single envelope.

While your email contact information will be added to our database so we can contact you regarding the contest winners as well as with other information, you may ask to be removed from the database at any time.
All information provided on the completed entry forms will be kept confidential.

Prize package includes:
Grand Prize – Fully-paid tuition in a 2016 World Brewing Academy web-based Concise Course in Brewing Technology (a $3,780.00 US value). The grand prize winner may take the WBA web-based Concise Course in any of the scheduled 2016 sessions.

10 Secondary Prizes – 1 carton of 50-11g packets or one 500 gram pack of any Danstar/Lallemand yeast

All entries must arrive at our offices by Friday, Dec. 11th, 2015.

The random draw for all prizes will take place on Monday, Dec. 14th, 2015. Winners will be notified by email in the week following Dec. 14, 2015, with an announcement of the grand prize winner during this week. Only one prize will be given per person.

All entries must be sent to:

Lallemand Inc. Attn: Marie Coppet
6100 Royalmount,
Montreal, QC, Canada

H4P 2R2

Sulphidic Off Flavours?

ZETOLITE – Sulphidic Off Flavours?                        

Then our Zetolite range is the answer.
Zetolites are concentrated powder products from natural occurring volcanic minerals that can be used as processing aids (not additives) which don’t need to be declared on your product labels. Zetolite 63 contains copper salts formulated to reduce sulphidic off-flavours. The product should be slurried with a small amount of water or product and added to the fermenter or conditioning tank or tank.Zetolite 65 contains zinc salts formulated to prevent sulphidic off-flavours. The product should be slurried with a small amount of water or wort and added to the kettle or fermenter at the start of fermentation.Dosage rates for both products are between 0.25 – 1 gram per hectolitre of wort / beer.Here’s a Testimony, brewer wishes to remain anonymous.

‘I have found Zetolite to be a fast and effective way of removing H2S from beer. It is a useful stock item to have as a back up when the usual process controls adopted to regulate H2S levels have not been successful.’ .


Monitoring your pH throughout the process will help contribute to a good extract yield and fermentability.


The pH of the liquor will have little effect on the pH of the wort and beer. Alkalinity and Calcium are more important in pH control.
Once you have established correct levels of these ions it is advisable to follow the guidelines of typical pH measurements in the brewing process shown below. Hand-held pH meters can be purchased from Murphy & Son Ltd for £58.50.
Please be aware that if you purchase our liquor treatments, you may be entitled to free laboratory testing in the lab and free technical support to ensure you use the correct dosage rates.
Please find the following pH values that are typical measurements and are useful as guidelines when monitoring you pH values.

Raw Liquor pH 6.0-8.0
Treated Liquor pH 6.0-8.0
Mash pH 5.2-5.5
1st Runnings pH 4.8-5.2
Last Runnings pH 5.4-5.6
Wort in Copper pH 5.1-5.4
Wort after boil pH 4.9-5.3
Beer after fermentation pH 3.7-4.2

Alkalinity is mainly caused by calcium carbonate and bicarbonate. The alkalinity of your liquor plays a very important role in pH control. It causes high pH values throughout the brewing process. Hydrogen ions are removed from solution, thus wort pH remains high which results in low extract yield; presence of undesirable protein components; worts and beers prone to infection; increased extraction of silicates, polyphenols and tannins during sparge and harsh “after tastes” in the finished beer.

Reduces the pH during mashing and wort boiling which improves enzyme activity. This is achieved by the calcium ions precipitating phosphates present in the wort as insoluble calcium phosphate which in turn releases the hydrogen ions in the wort which reduces the pH.
3Ca2+ + 2HPO42- → Ca3 (PO4)2 ↓ + 2H+
The optimum pH of the enzyme α-amylase is about 5.7 and that of ß-amylase is about 4.7. Therefore an optimum range in the mash of pH 5.2-5.5 promotes the production of sugars from starch thus making worts more fermentable.
Promotes the precipitation of unwanted proteins in the kettle, hop back or whirlpool. Calcium also has an effect on the precipitation of undesirable wort proteins both during mashing and during the boil

Protein – H + Ca2+ → Protein – Ca↓ + 2H+
The hydrogen ions released further reduce the pH which encourages further precipitation of proteins. The reduction of pH then causes protein breakdown by the enzymes present in malt, this reduces protein levels and increases wort Free Amino Nitrogen levels (FAN).
Improves health and vigour of the yeast. This is a result of FAN compounds being utilised by the yeast during fermentation.

  • Improves clarity and stability of the finished product. Reduced protein levels in beers make beer easier to fine and less prone to haze formation, in particular chill haze. The shelf life of the final product is also improved.
  • Calcium ions protect α-amylase enzyme from inhibition by heat. Calcium ions also improve enzyme activity.
  • Reduces the risk of infection. The drop in pH encouraged by Calcium ions in the mash and copper provides a greater resistance to microbiological infection.
  • Reduces extraction of silicates, tannins and polyphenols. These materials contribute to harsh flavours, hazes in the final beer and decreased stability.
  • Reduces beerstone and in some cases prevents gushing in beer. Oxalates derived from the malt contribute to the formation of beerstone and are also thought to promote gushing in beer. Calcium reacts with oxalates to form insoluble calcium oxalate which is precipitated out in the mash.
  • Reduces colour formation during wort boiling. The extraction of colour forming compounds are reduced during sparging.
  • Improves beer fining performance. Calcium ions promote yeast flocculation at the end of fermentation.

For typical levels of ions for different beer styles, Double click following table to see figures…

typical levels of ions

Optimum pH for Mash Enzymes
• Alpha amylase 5.3 – 5.8
• Beta amylase 4.9 – 5.4
• Proteolytic 4.6 – 5.0
• Peptidase 4.6 – 5.0
• Phytase 5.0 – 5.2
• Mash 5.1 – 5.4

For further reading:


DWB is a formulated blend of powdered salts to increase mineral content of brewing liquor to produce the desired beer characteristics.



Faults in the process which may cause slow, or slow to start fermentations

Brewing Audit

Slow, or slow to start fermentation can be due to faults in the process such as insufficient aeration which can be solved by rousing or increasing the rigour of rousing of your wort.

Premature attemperation can be another cause, which can be solved by pitching more yeast, agitation or running hot liquor through the attemperator.

Another cause may be that the ambient temperature may be too low this can be rectified by running hot liquor through the attemperator or increase ambient temperature using insulation, heating etc.

click here for more information