Category Archives: Finings

What should you expect from this year’s malt specifications?

We’ve been discussing the expected malt specifications for the coming year with our malt suppliers and wanted to feed back so you can prepare and tweak your recipes as required.

The malt nitrogens coming into breweries with the new seasons malt are likely to be higher than usual, at around 1.7%. The winters are not expected to be quite as high, but are still above average, predicted at up to 1.5%. This is a result of environmental factors, as last year saw low rainfall which made it harder for the barley to establish properly. Blame the British weather, it’s a national habit and we brewers are no different. You can however, prepare for this and if you need any technical support in doing so, we’re always on hand. The key implications revolve around your use of copper and auxiliary finings, the rates of which will need to be reoptimised once malt is in breweries and will likely increase. You can expect to see the first malts of this harvest in breweries across the country from mid-February onwards.

Could do with a bit more information on the matter? No problem!

It starts with the farmers, who sow different varieties of malting barley in autumn and early winter, known as “winters” and again in spring, known as “springs”, both of which are harvested from early July onwards. The latter are becoming more popular as they tend to be easier to grow but do require more fertiliser to get a decent yield by harvest time. Winters don’t require as much fertiliser making them cheaper for the farmer but extract value to the brewer tends to be less.

In brewing, we refer to the percentage of protein present in the malt as percentage nitrogen, it is quoted on malt analyses and used as a price guide and quality indicator. For example, feed barleys have a high protein content to feed the animals. Brewers however, want nitrogens to be lower, at around 1.4-1.5%. This provides enough yeast growth, flavour and beer foam without any substantial problems with haze, stability and excess yeast growth, above these levels and the later can become an issue. There is therefore, always a focus on this parameter at harvest and purchase time.

How come the percentage nitrogen is predicted as being higher in British malt this year?

The issue is in fact that of last year, where we saw a prolonged dry winter and spring in the main growing regions of the UK, resulting in crops not establishing well. To help crops along, farmers spread higher amounts of fertiliser which in turn pushed the nitrogens up. This is because the fertiliser is taken up by the growing plant and deposited in the developing ears of corn which are the grains harvested as barley for the malt crop. Had they not done this, the crop may well have failed altogether, something which did happen in a small number of districts resulting in some shortage too. The maltsters work with what they get off the fields, blending barleys to get an overall consistency which they can sell to brewers. However from a brewer’s perspective, with already high nitrogens and a limited supply, the quality of malt coming onto the market is weaker when compared to the previous years’ crop. Therefore, the forecast is less stable beer.

As brewers there are various techniques at our disposal to control protein (nitrogen) in the brewing process, and this is where we at Murphys specialise! Carrageenan and auxiliary finings are both process aids that remove this protein. It follows therefore, that brewers will require more of these products to treat the higher nitrogen malt expected this year. Something which we can support with our optimisation services and technical expertise, provided to you by a team of master brewers. Choosing Murphys will be an invaluable decision in 2018.

Like to perform your own optimisations? We’ve just the kit you need!

The Murphy Copper Finings Optimization Kit, which contains all the equipment required, as well as documentation on how to perform your own optimisations.

Kegging, canning or bottling? Have you considered the benefits of Murphy’s Super F?

Since its launch,  Super F has proven invaluable to many of the top craft breweries worldwide, providing great results for beer produced for keg, can and bottle whether filtered or unfiltered.

What is it?

Super F is a rapid action fining, made using our own special formulation of silicate and polysaccharide for rapid sedimentation.  This unique blend makes Super F effective at fining out yeast as well as being an effective finings agent against potential haze forming colloids like proteins.

How’s it used?

Super F is best added when beer is moved from fermenting vessel to conditioning tank with care taken to ensure good mixing.  It is not a suitable addition for cask conditioned beer and should never be dosed directly to cask.  Action of this fining is quite rapid with excellent results achievable within 48 hours.  Super F packs a real punch so dose rates are low with typical doses 75ml-175ml per hl will achieve great clarity (often less than 1 EBC) and a compact sediment.

Benefits

The rapid action of Super F will significantly reduce residency time in conditioning / maturation vessel.  When using this product, the load on centrifuges and filters will be significantly reduced due to brighter beer being presented for further processing.  This gives considerable time and money savings per run.

When kegging unfiltered beer, yeast counts and protein content in the product will be lower and more consistent, leading to a more stable product.

Super F is also vegan friendly and is easy to store (just don’t freeze it!) with a shelf-life of 6 months from manufacture date. Furthermore, Super F is also in accordance with German Purity Law (set into force by the German provisional beer law in its current version 9 [6]).

Finings trials

Introducing a new finings regime to any brewery is a big step.  At Murphy and Son, we pride ourselves on our technical support so before any brewer uses this product we ask that they send a representative two litre sample of their beer to our laboratory where our Research and Development Scientist Dr Ruth Newby and the rest of the lab team will set up optimisation trials.  This will give valuable information on haze and sediment levels for different dosages to provide a starting point for trials and additions in the brewery.  As always, our technical sales team will also be on hand to aid and advise on the products use.

Author: Iain Kenny
Technical Sales Representative

For further information or to setup a trial please contact our technical team on
technical@murphyandson.co.uk

Addition of Copper Finings Murphy and Son Ltd

General Considerations

• Copper finings are derived from seaweeds and the active ingredients are carrageenans and furcellarans. They are available as dried seaweed, e.g. Irish Moss, or as extracts in the form of either pellets or powders.
• Copper finings can be added directly to the copper. Alternatively powders can be slurried with cold liquor prior to addition.
• The optimum rate of addition of finings should be determined annually when starting the new season’s malt or whenever there is a change in the type or supplier of malt.
• The rate of addition of finings will affect the clarity of both hot and cooled wort. Incorrect addition of copper finings (both over and under) can give poor fining action in the cooled wort and beer which fines with difficulty.

Range of Values

• Optimum rates of addition may vary from one malt variety to another, from season to season and from brewhouse to brewhouse. Murphys are happy to offer an annual optimisation service to our customers, either in our labs or on-site.
• Typical rates of addition are in the order of 1·0 – 5·0 gms per Hectolitre (10 ppm to 50 ppm, 1·63 – 8·15 gms per barrel).• Hot breaks should consist of large flocs in bright wort. Cold breaks should be a heavy fine sediment in bright wort.
• The haziness of worts from the heat exchanger should be within the range of 2 – 6 E.B.C. haze units. If worts are too bright fermentation problems are sometimes encountered because the release of carbon dioxide and consequent ‘stirring action’ that such a release promotes, are hindered.

Operational Protocols

• When casting to a hop-back, finings are added during the last 5 to 15 minutes of boiling. If the practice is to recycle worts at the hop-back finings can be added at this point. When using a Whirlpool, finings should be added at casting from the copper.
• Whatever method of addition is used the copper finings must be evenly dispersed.
• Rates of addition should be optimised according to results obtained.

Measurement Protocols

• The formation of hot breaks is assessed visually after sampling from the copper at casting.
• Cold breaks are assessed visually after sampling from the cold wort mains and allowing to stand for a minimum of 2 hours.
• Rate of addition of finings; a graph is drawn of casting, gravity against rate of addition of copper finings and breaks are indicated as excellent, good or poor. The rate of addition is altered when poor results are observed.

Kettle Finings at Murphy & Son

Function of Auxiliary Finings

Auxiliary Finings

General Considerations
• Auxiliary fininqs aid the action of isinglass finings by enhancing the total negative charge, especially when contribution by yeast is low. This improves the electrostatic interaction between proteins and isinglass finings. Beers fine more quickly because of the larger floc size.
• Auxiliary finings are available in solution as acidified polysaccharides, silicates, alginates and formulated blends.
• Factors which need to be considered are the type of auxiliary finings, dosage rate, storage temperature and conditions, time of addition, fining performance, yeast count prior to fining and compactness of sediment.

Range of Values
• Sulphur dioxide content of liquid auxiliary finings is typically between 200 and 300 mg per litre.
• Solutions of auxiliary finings should be visually bright prior to use.
• Yeast counts are typically 0·5 x 106 – 2 x 106 cells per ml with a mean of 1·0 x 106 cells per ml.
• The dosage rate of auxiliary finings is typically 0·9 – 3·5 ml per litre (¼ – 1 pint per barrel), but is related to the isinglass dosage rate and depends on compactness of the sediment.

Operational Protocols
• Liquid auxiliary finings are stabilised with sulphur dioxide and stored in inert containers at ambient temperature There must be adequate ventilation in the storage area because levels of sulphnr dioxide particularly on delivery can be high.
• Addition is made in-line through a dosing pump as beer is transferred from fermenting vessel to racking tank or directly to tank or cask
• Addition of alginate auxiliary finings is made at least 4 hours before addition of isinglass finings. Due to the rapid action of silica based auliliaries they can be added either pre- or post-isinglass finings. The actual time of addition is determined by experience.

Measurement Protocols
• Every batch of finings should be inspected visually and examined for infection by micro- organisms.
• Fining action is monitored by making the equivalent addition of finings to appropriate samples of beer and noting daily the size of flocs, speed of fining action and clarity of fined sample
• A nine gallon cask is fined and stillaged in the sample cellar for a larger scale production check on the fining performance
• Finings contribute to sulphur dioxide levels in beer The levels of sulphur dioxide in samples of fined beer should be measured. Auxiliary finings supplied by Murphy & Son Ltd. will add in the order of 0·25 – 1 ppm SO2 to the beer at typical addition rates.

Take a look at our Auxiliary finings range

 

Ideal Winter Fining Products: KOMPACTIKLEER & BREWBRITE

IDEAL WINTER FINING PRODUCTS: KOMPACTIKLEER AND BREWBRITE

kompactikleer

Murphy and Son’s Kompactikleer

As the nights are drawing in and temperatures are dropping, this may be the ideal time to consider trying some of our products that reduce the chances of chill haze. We currently have two products that can be used to replace the existing processing aids that you currently use.

Chill haze occurs when proteins and tannins form loose covalent bonds forcing them from solution into suspension. Cask beer often reached temperatures well below that at which they are served during storage and transport, and chill hazes readily occur.

The use of a Silica hydrogel, or PVPP can help prevent chill haze as these products bind to the dissolved protein or polyphenol removing them from the solution and thus lowering the potential for chill haze.

Polyclar Brewbrite is a kettle fining product that uses both PVPP and carrageenan to bind tannins as well as protein in the copper. Kompactikleer is an isinglass, silica hydrogel blend which binds in haze potential protein the cask.

brewbrite

These products have a proven track record in the UK and the USA.

For more information regarding these products please click on the tech sheets or please contact frances.maud@murphyandson.co.uk

Isinglass – Murphy and Son’s Kleer Finings product range

We have over 100 years’ experience in manufacturing isinglass

In 2002 our processing aids portfolio became complete with the acquisition of the Saville’s Clarification product range and the manufacture of isinglass finings. This is the era when we introduced the “KLEER” range.

For many years Savilles Ltd were the leading name in the supply of detergents and processing aids to the brewing industry. Within this acquisition we also acquired 100 years of their experience with well documented research and development which help us to understand the physical properties and factors affecting its performance and its role in clarifying cask beers, and as a pre-treatment for processed beer.

Meet Pete Ball our Isinglass production manager

Meet Pete Ball, our best asset from the acquisition he is our Isinglass Production Manager and has been manufacturing isinglass for over 30 years. He now commutes daily from Birmingham to our site in Nottingham. There is very little that Pete doesn’t know about the production of isinglass.

pete2    pete1

Why use Murphy’s Isinglass finings?

Like all our products, our range of isinglass are formulated and manufactured here in Nottingham to perform to the highest standard, and will give you the consistent results you require every time you brew. They are also backed by the same commitment to technical support which you would expect from the Murphy & Son name.

If you purchase our clarification products you are entitled to free optimisations and full technical assistance.

All Murphy and Son isinglass products are manufactured under the ISO9001:2008 quality system. This system allows us to manufacture within strict parameters giving traceability and accountability from the raw materials to the finished product. With the modern drinks supply chain increasingly demanding quality and traceability only companies like Murphy and Son have the technical resources to fulfil those requirements.

To manufacture isinglass you must follow the approved manufacturing code of practice that has a very detailed washing procedure, to ensure the levels of potential allergens are reduced to the lowest levels. Our Isinglass is manufactured to this protocol. Anybody not following this protocol will need to label all small pack beer as containing fish products thereof, under allergen labelling regulations.

Our product range.

We offer three blends of Isinglass, Caskleer, Allkleer and Tankleer which are supplied as liquid, paste and powder. In addition we supply a unique product Kompactikleer which is a blend of Isinglass liquid with silica hydrogel to remove both protein and yeast from suspension whilst giving a compact trub.

The Caskleer products are formulated to give brilliant clarity in cask conditioned beer. The carefully selected swim bladders will produce large flocs that drop quickly and will enable beer to be resettled a number of times.

The Tankleer products are designed to give compact sediments and fairly bright but not brilliant beers. As such, they are suited to brewery conditioned beer processing where the clarity is sufficiently good to send the beer for filtration whilst tank bottom losses are minimised.

The Allkleer products are a combination of the above two formulations and are designed to give clear beer with good sediment in either cask or brewery conditioned beers

The Kompactikleer products are advanced formulations designed to provide the best in sediment stability. They are particularly useful where beers are difficult to clarify using standard grades of isinglass finings or where tank base angles cause sediment slippage during emptying.

isinglass

Look after your Murphy’s Isinglass finings and store correctly in the summer.

Please be aware of the ideal storage temperatures for your isinglass, this will help it retain its quality and effectiveness:

  • Store in cool conditions away from direct sunlight
  • Keep container sealed when not in use
  • Recommend storage temperature 5-15 °C
  • Minimum storage temperature is 1°C
  • Do not allow the product to freeze
  • The shelf life for ready for use isinglass has a recommended storage temperature is 8 weeks from the date of manufacture.

Kettle Finings – Murphy & Son’s carrageenan product range

Our kettle finings (carrageenan) products are added to the wort in the kettle to enhance protein removal as the wort cools.

Benefits

  • Natural product which removes substantial quantities of haze-forming material without affecting head retention
  • Produces brighter worts; reducing the amount of finings required later
  • Increases rate of fermentation and attenuation
  • Increases filter runs
  • Prolongs shelf life in small pack beers
  • Reduces process time
  • Is a processing aid not an additive so doesn’t require label declaration
  • Reduced tank losses
  • 5-10% more efficient than competitive products
  • Tabletted for easy use

The active ingredient is a polysaccharide called carrageenan, which is derived from seaweed. The following photos are from Nick Brading our Export Manager who paid his annual visit to the Philippines to audit our suppliers.

Picture2picture 1

 

Carrageenan in solution is negatively charged, owing to the sulphate groups along the polysaccharide backbone. It is these charged sites which interact with wort proteins.

structure carrageenanIn solution at temperatures above 65°C, the carrageenan has a random coil structure. But, as the wort cools the carrageenan takes a much more compact and ordered helical structure, it is this which is thought to drag the protein particles together to form aggregates. The aggregates, having a larger particle radius, settle faster.

Kettle finings are added in the kettle to allow the carrageenan to dissolve. As the wort cools the wort proteins react with carrageenan and settle in the whirlpool or at a cold break during fermentation, to be removed along with the excess yeast.

The removal of particles and protein from wort has been demonstrated by microscopic examination of pre-filtered beers and protein assay. As the levels of kettle finings increase, the fine particle counts in each of the size bands decrease. It should be noted that the particles below 2 microns are mostly responsible for blinding filter pores.

  • Kettle finings vary in when they should be added to the kettle, for example Protafloc should be added 10 minutes before the end of the boil, whereas Koppakleer is added at the end of the boil.
  • The reaction between wort proteins and carageenan is also pH dependent and occurs at an optimum pH of 5.3, The reaction does not occur below pH 4.4, so there will be little benefit from kettle finings at this pH or below.

Since Kettle Finings remove both particulate and soluble protein, and soluble protein is a component of chill haze, it is unsurprising that the colloidal stability of kettle fined beers are enhanced.

Our range of kettle finings products are Koppakleer, Protafloc, and Wortkleer, please contact us to discuss which kettle finings are suitable for you.

Keep Cool this Summer…..Isinglass is temperature sensitive

Be aware of the ideal storage temperatures for your products this will help it retain its quality and effectiveness.
For isinglass the storage temperatures are as follows:
Store in cool conditions away from direct sunlight.
Keep container sealed when not in use.
Recommended storage temperature :5-15°C
Minimum storage temperature:1°C
Do not allow the product to freeze
The shelf life at recommended storage temperature is 8 weeks from the date of manufacture.
Please refer to your technical datasheets for storage conditions for other product.aka

FREE kettle, isinglass and auxiliary fining optimisations if you purchase our clarification products plus free liquor analysis, if you purchase our liquor treatments.

Our products and services help the brewing industry to help control their processes, minimise losses, maximise yields and to help run a more efficient brewery. Our unique selling point is that each product is backed up with free technical support.

Our friendly team of brewing experts offer services which give advice with all types of brewers’ problems. Our laboratory offers free kettle, isinglass and auxiliary fining optimisations if you purchase our clarification products plus free liquor analysis, if you purchase our liquor treatments.

dwb 1Liquor Treatments

Liquor treatments are vitally important to the brewing process. By converting your water supply into acceptable brewing liquor you will gain many benefits such as controlling your alkalinity, enabling optimum pH levels throughout the process which improves enzyme activity, extract yield, fermentability, clarity and stability.

Send in 30-50ml sample of your liquor to our laboratory with a cover letter, we will email you an analysis of your ions and recommend water treatments. Remember this service is free of charge for those who purchase our liquor treatments and you can have your water tested annually.

For more information regarding liquor treatments, why don’t you read the following article:

http://www.murphyandson.co.uk/murphyandson/water.html

akaClarification products

For customers who purchase our kettle fining, to obtain a precise dosage rate please send in 1 litre of your unfined wort to our laboratory.

For Isinglass and Auxiliary optimisations please send in 1 litre of your unfined beer.

All sample must be in plastic containers, fully labelled and accompanied by a cover letter with full contact details.

Please find the following article regarding clarification in beer:

http://www.murphyandson.co.uk/murphyandson/all-bright.html

Murphy and Son Ltd
Laboratory
Alpine Street
Old Basford
NG6 0HQ